The laws of Thermodynamics
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.
The laws of Thermodynamics describe how temperature, energy, and entropy behave under various circumstances, and forbid certain phenomena
- Zeroth law of thermodynamics:
- First law of thermodynamics:
- second law of thermodynamics:
- Third law of thermodynamics:
KEY TERM Entropy: A thermodynamic property that is the measure of a system’s thermal energy per unit of temperature.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
This law helps define the concept of temperature.
The first law of thermodynamics:The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy. law of conservation of energy states thatthe total energy of an isolated system is constant.
Energy neither created nor destroyed, but it changes from one form to another form.
Second law of thermodynamics: In ideal cases the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
Third law of thermodynamics:The entropy of a system approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero.
Laws of Thermodynamics with Examples
The first law of thermodynamics:
Everything in the universe follows the first law of Thermodynamics , Energy neither created nor destroyed, but it changes from one form to another form.
A simple example is , if you turn on the switch the bulb glows here electrical energy is converted into another form like light and heat.
Second law of thermodynamics:
reversible process : isentropic process is the correct example for reversible process.
irreversible process: If we put a hot object and cold object in contact they come to equilibrium state
if we separate them they don’t come to natural state.
Third law of thermodynamics:
in 3rd law the driving force for equilibration is uniquely defined
The entropy of the crystalline substance at absolute zero is equal to zero. because absolute zero cant be reached
it is impossible to lower the temperature of any system to absolute zero in finite no of steps
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